Two Seeding Methods Nursery on oil palm, Which is best

  1) Breeding

    Seeding is the initial stage of field activities that must begin no later than one year before planting in the field. The provision of oil palm seeds to meet planting needs is inseparable from seed procurement, seeding and seeding activities in the field. The main purpose of breeding is to prepare good seedlings by the criteria of healthy, strong and sturdy. Good seeds will reduce maintenance costs and support maximum production.

2) Seedling method

Nurseries can be divided into two types, namely single system and double system.

a.       Single stage nursery system

    In single-system nurseries seeds are planted directly into polybags without germination. Setting the planting distance in a single system aged 0-12 months, which is 91 cm x 91 cm, then at the age of more than 12 months it is set to 122 cm x 122 cm or more. 15% of seeds set aside are planted in small polybags measuring 15 cm x 23 cm for the purpose of insertion from seedlings for the first 4 months.

Excess:

·         Simple handling of seedlings
·         Avoid transplanting shock
·         Savings on infrastructure and equipment on pre nursery Weaknesses:
·         Large area is required
.         Requires a large water system and irrigation system
·         Requires close supervision, especially 4 weeks after planting (critical period).
·         Culling or selection is more difficult and takes longer

b.       Double stage nursery

    The dual system nursery stage is divided into pre nursery and main nursery. Seeds are first planted in germination (pre nursery) then transferred to the nursery (main nursery) for further development.

The advantages of dual system breeding are,
    ·         More land efficient because it only requires relatively smaller land
    ·         Less water requirement
    ·         Maintenance and culling are easier to do
    ·         Maintenance costs are cheaper in the early stages. Debilitation
    ·         There is a risk of transplanting shock
    ·         More sensitive to pests when less handling
    ·         requires additional infrastructure and more complicated handling.

Pre Nursery

    The first thing before planting sprouts is carried out selection of sprouts, sprouts are damaged, rotten and dead culling. Planting should pay attention to the position of the plumule (future stem) and radicle (future root). The plumule must face up, the plumule has a brighter characteristic than the radicle.

Bed

    Bed as a container for arranging and placing polybags during the pre-nursery period. The beds are made with a width of about 1 m and a length as desired. Made elongated and only 1 m wide for easy supervision and maintenance. In nurseries, KNB does not use polybags but hyplugs. Hyplugs are arranged lengthwise with a width of 12 seedlings and a length as desired. Between beds are spaced 30 cm apart to facilitate supervision and watering. The beds are named containing varieties, the number of seedlings and planting dates.

Paranet

    Paranet or shade is made to reduce the rate of heavy rainwater, which is feared to erode the soil in the polybag. In addition, the shade ends minimize light or create slightly dim conditions to stimulate the hormone auxin which helps in the process of accelerating growth both roots, stems and germination. Shade is slowly removed at the age of 1 month or the seedlings have 2 leaves.

Watering

    Watering in pre nursery is done twice a day, namely morning and evening. Water needs per seedling about 0.6-1 L / day.

Main Nursery

a.     Planting media, Planting media in the main nursery is soil that has been filled into polybags with a size of 36 cm x 46 cm and 46 cm x 56 cm. Polybags are arranged in five eyes with a size of 80 cm x 70 cm. Before transferring seedlings from PN to MN, agroblend fertilizer is first applied.

b.   Watering, in the main nursery watering is carried out morning and evening with the need for 1.4-3 L of water / tree / day. Watering using the sumisansui method, the selection of sumisansui because the cost is relatively cheaper than the springcle method.

c. Pests, pests in the main nursery include caterpillars, grasshoppers, mites and others. The treatment uses the active ingredient cypermethrin.

d. Selection, selection in the main nursery is carried out in the 7th, 9th and 12th months. Abnormal seedlings are immediately destroyed to reduce maintenance costs and prevent them from reaching the field.

Terms of nursery location

The location of the nursery should meet such ideal conditions as:
a.      Slope. The location should be flat, have good drainage and be free from flooding.
b.     Water supply. Clean and uncontaminated water.
c.      Entry. Good road system for surveillance, movement of workers and supply of materials.
d.     Security, safe from animal disturbance, theft and others.
e.     The intensity of sunlight is sufficient.

Preparation for nurseries or land includes cleaning, leveling, making ditches, making roads, establishing water sources and fencing.

Healthy basic criteria

    A healthy staple is desirable in the seedling process. A healthy staple can be obtained from the process of good maintenance, fertilizing and watering. Trees that are not good or abnormal will be culling, namely selecting oil palm seeds that do not enter the keriteria of normal / healthy seedlings. The main criteria for a healthy are:

·         Trees and roots are sturdy and strong
·         The leaves are verdant and perfectly open
·         Safe from diseases and no defects
·         Internode spacing is not too rare and not too tight


Comments

Popular Posts