Parthenocarpy Incomplete pollination abnormalities of Oil Palm Plants

     Parthenocarpy is an abnormalities condition of palm fruit whose percentage in one bunch of palm is more than 30% compared to normal fruit. The condition can be seen in the following picture.

    This condition is closely related to the productivity of oil palm plants. The lower the percentage of parthenocarpy in one bunch, the higher the productivity because the average bunch weight is higher. Parthenocarpy is characterized by no kernel core and this condition is very low in oil content. Parthenocarpy is identified as field pollination failure.

The main pollinating agent in oil palm is the insect Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust. Optimal pollination requires 20,000 individuals of E. kamerunicus in one hectare of land. Causes of low populations of E. kamerunicus include the use of insecticides when plants have not yet produced, excessive ablation of male flowers, and the location of the field far enough from producing plants or old plants. In some varieties, the sex ratio of males and females is low. Disposal of male flowers is recommended to be stopped one year before the first harvest. The presence of male flowers is very important as a provider of pollen not only as a pollination material, but also as a food source for the beetle Elaeidobius kamerunicus.

 A good bunch is one whose fruit set ratio (result of pollination) is greater to the whole fruit in one bunch including parthenocarpal / mantle fruit. The fruit set of an ideal bunch is 70%, meaning that in one bunch the percentage of finished fruit is 70% while the parthenocarpy fruit is 30%.One of the productivity of oil palm is determined by the sex ratio. Sex ratio is a comparison between the number of female flowers with the total number of flowers. Sex ratio is determined by two main factors, namely genetic and environmental, the response of oil palm to water stress is the occurrence of an increase in the number of male flowers.

Repair methods

1. Hatch and Carry

Hatch and Carry is a breeding method of pollinating beetles Elaeidobius kamerunicus. This method is carried out to multiply pollinating beetles by bringing from old plants and then breeding them in special boxes. Captive beetles are sprayed with pollen pollen to bring to female flowers.

2. Male Hormones

There are already male hormone modification products, the scent of the pollinating beetle Elaeidobius kamerunicus. The hormone is applied to lure female beetles so that the beetle population in the field increases.

With this effort, it is hoped that a perfect fruit set will be obtained


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